Travel: Different Means of Travel!

Nowadays, there are many different means of travelling which include airplane or ships or trains or buses etc. you can choose your medium by keeping in view your interest, your priorities and of course your budget. Lets have some general over view of different means of travelling.

AIR: Air travel is the most recent means of moving from one place to another. Since its first usage, it has become so popular due to its many advantages that it is now the most used mean of travel by people for long routes. It is taken as an expensive choice although there are many air lines that are offering air flights quite cheaply but over all it is an expensive but most quick mean of moving from one place to another.

SEA: Sea is one of the oldest means of travelling. Ships were used for roaming even by Greeks and Egyptians. It remained the main source of travelling for quite a long time but after the invention of aero planes, it has somehow lost its place. Nowadays moving from one place to another by sea is rarely done and even when done it is mostly through large ships which are built for luxurious cruising for the more privileged people. Middle and lower class people can’t really enjoy in those huge and luxurious vessels.

TRAIN: Moving from one city to another by means of train is considered as the most reliable and affordable mean of travelling. Trains now for long have remained a top priority of people for travelling. Travelling by train has all the ingredients that it takes for a perfect travel as it is quick and reliable and cheap mean of travelling.

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Rental Property – The Responsibilities of the Renter and the Owner

When you rent someone’s property, it’s good to know how what your responsibilities are in order not to have inconvenient situations. When some people rent someone else’s property they think that they are responsible only for a few little things and the rest of responsibilities should be taken care by a leasing agent. But usually it is vice versa. When someone rents a house or apartment, they are usually obligated to sign a contract where all the responsibilities of leasing agent and renter are fully described. In case if something happens both parties understand what they are responsible for.

Responsibilities Of Renters

Normally, renters bear responsibility for the area that is around their apartment and for the apartment itself. Usually, these are areas inside the apartment as well as their backyard. So this includes common sense responsibilities and rules of maintenance and cleanliness of the area. Such things such as repairing certain parts of the interior or the exterior or painting the walls are the responsibilities of the renter.

But still, this is not it. Renter is responsible for some other things in leasing agent’s house. If something happens with the bathrooms, the renter is also responsible for fixing it if it’s possible. But if such things happen and that renter doesn’t feel comfortable to accomplish this job she might contact the maintenance contractor for proper help.

Renters must know their responsibilities and always show respect to other renters in their area and not cause damage intentionally. Not picking up trash after yourself if you left it somewhere is the same as intentional littering. Renters that don’t follow these rules are fully responsible for their actions and might be forced to pay fines.

Responsibilities Of Leasing Agents

If something happens with that exterior of the building or the equipment is not working properly then it is the responsibility of the leasing agent. Leasing agent is always supposed to take care of his renters and make sure that they are always provided with all the necessary utilities and that everything is working properly in his apartment. For instance, if problems with water occur in the apartment then the leasing agent he supposed to contact maintenance staff.

And also, one more of responsibilities of a leasing agent taking care of public areas. This is usually that surround that area of the apartment, such as grassy parts of the land.

So basically, the leasing agent is always has to take care of his renters and make sure they don’t have any complaints or concerns. If the leasing agent doesn’t pay attention to any complaints that he’s renters might have, this may lead to having problems with clients or with the local housing authority. Again, if the client or the renter is not provided with what he expected and paid for, he will be very disappointed about the maintenance service. In these cases renter might call a maintenance company to resolve the situation and bill the expense to the owner.

So before you rent an apartment to a renter as a leasing agent make sure that both of the above are working fine. A renter faced with this kind of problems, can contact the department of housing and ask them to provide advice what to do in this situation.

In some cases, leasing agents may break their rules of that agreement and disobey points of the contract. The department of housing is usually responsible for enforcement in this kind of situation and if the renters still have complaints, they have the authority to force the owner to provide a remedy.

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The Eviction Process

Obviously, evicting a tenant is not a thrilling part of real estate investing for the tenant or the landlord. What follows is a description of the eviction process itself (especially as it pertains to what can be expected in Ohio), peppered with some of my personal comments with regards to how I typically handle evictions.

Generally, if I’ve not received rent monies from a tenant by the 8th or 9th of the month, I call the tenant. My leases stipulate that the tenant has a grace period until the 5th of the month to mail rent monies without being charged any type of late fee. As long as the envelope is postmarked by the 5th – no late fee. Allowing 3 or 4 days (from the 5th) for a tenant’s payment to arrive is pretty liberal and plenty of time to allow for the monies to be received from cross-town mail.

If upon a call to the tenant I believe we’re going to have problems, I immediately deliver a 3-day notice to the property. A copy of the notice is made before delivering. The 3-day notice is posted (taped) on the front door of the property if the tenant or other occupant is not there when it’s delivered. Any tenant that reaches this point (the starting of the eviction process), is advised that the 3-day notice is simply being posted as a way to protect my interests in the event the tenant doesn’t make good on the outstanding monies due.

Attaching a 3-day notice to the tenant’s door does not negatively affect the tenant’s public record. It’s not until the 3-day is formally filed that it becomes public record. The landlord cannot file for eviction until 3 business days have passed from the point the 3 day-notice was placed on the property. Once the 3 business days are up, the landlord can begin the formal eviction process. How does this start? You will take your paperwork, including a copy of the 3-day notice, and file to have an eviction hearing. I use an attorney to process all of my evictions. Specifically, one specializing in handling evictions. I personally prefer using an attorney that will try to remedy the situation with the tenant before the case is even heard. You don’t have to use an attorney – you can do a lot of this yourself and save a few bucks, but I recommend you use one. If you’ve never been to your local court system to witness eviction hearings, I highly recommend it. You’ll quickly get a flavor of what takes place during these hearings and will know what to expect ahead of time should you ever get to the point of processing an eviction on one of your own properties.

You can expect it take approximately two weeks before your hearing is scheduled. It’s important to note that I always keep the communication line open with the tenant through this whole process. I think this is extremely important. I want the tenant to know that I don’t like going down this path just as much as the tenant doesn’t. It’s not my goal just to boot a tenant out of the property. In fact, I try very hard to work out payment arrangements or even payment assistance resources with the tenant in an effort to get him or her back up on their feet. Yes it may take a little hand-holding and some of your extra time, but I’d say eight out of ten tenants going through this extra hand-holding will appreciate your trying to help and will ultimately clear their overdue balances with you. You walk a very fine line here with the tenant in that he or she may also be taking advantage of you. It can be a tough call. At times it can simply come down to relying on your gut feeling with the situation.

If judgement is taken (in your favor) at the hearing, the judge will give you permission to “red tag” the door. A red tag is just that – it’s bright red and has marked on it the date that possessions will be moved out of the property if the tenant has not vacated. The tenant has five days from tagging to get out of the property. It will usually take 2-3 business days after the court hearing for this tag to get placed on the front door of your property. Again, I keep the tenant abreast of my intentions during this process. You as the landlord call the shots with regards to whether or not any possible set-out occurs. I mention to the tenant that I still do not desire to set property out at the curb, and if payment arrangements can be made, the set-out can be averted. You will again have to make the call here. Do you want to accept only partial payment for what is owed and try to arrange a plan for payment on the extra monies? Or do you feel the tenant is just not going to make it, and in this instance, follow through with the eviction process?

The final step is the dreaded set-out. It’s extremely rare that I ever have to get to this point. If it comes this far, frankly the tenant deserves it. I’ve given them every opportunity within reason to try and remedy the situation or move out on their own accord. If the tenant has not moved out by the date stipulated on the red tag, you as the landlord have the right to order a set-out with the bailiff. Again, an attorney that specializes in evictions really helps here. In Columbus, Ohio, you only have a two hour window Monday-Friday to request and schedule a set-out. Additionally, the set-out must be scheduled within ten days following the red tag, or you have to order a supplemental red tag (more money).

When the set-out is requested (it’s generally a day and time agreed upon by you and the bailiff), you will be expected to have at least four people dedicated to setting furniture and belongings out of the house. You will also be required to have trash bags and boxes to pack items before removing them from the house. Good maintenance workers will be handy to have when you get to this point.

As you can see, evictions can be a rather drawn-out process that generally take a good three to four weeks to run their route. This is why I believe it’s very crucial to always maintain good communication lines with your tenant and try and be as professional as possible in handling the situation. It will be frustrating!…but try and keep an open mind into ways you can help your tenant get through this. A good positive attitude can go a long way to making this process less stressful to both you and the tenant!

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The Importance of a Balance Sheet

An individual has two primary tools for managing personal finances. The Personal Balance Sheet is ignored and the Budget is the darling of Financial Consultants and the media. The key to understanding personal finances is that you have to understand your Budget and Balance Sheet individually and also how they work in combination to give you a complete snapshot of your personal finances.

Your balance sheet is extremely important because it shows you where the gold is. It is your personal Fort Knox. It is also extremely important because you need to have a stash of gold in your personal financial picture. The gold in your Balance Sheet is not the Assets. They are the positive side of your Balance Sheet but the real picture of how much gold you have in your Fort Knox is your Net Worth. So just as important to your Balance sheet is your Liabilities. The total of your Liabilities is subtracted from the total of your Assets to give you your Net Worth.

You fill out your Balance Sheet and total up your Assets and Liabilities. You subtract the total of your Liabilities from your Assets. That number, your Net Worth will come out to either a negative amount, an amount of or near zero, or it will be substantially positive. These are the only 3 scenarios possible.

• If your net worth is a minus number, you are not managing your financial resources properly. Your Balance sheet is your report card and you are failing. It is that simple. If you are managing your money to deal with life's challenges and planning your personal finances with your retirement in mind, your Net Worth should be positive and growing. If your net Worth is positive, you can ride out financial storms like the current situation. At the time of your retirement, your Net Worth must be substantially positive so that you will be able to keep costs down and have investment income to replace your working income. During your working years, your Net Worth should be growing steadily because a retirement nest egg does not grow without years of nurturing.

• There are circumstances where where it is acceptable to have a Net Worth of Zero or near Zero. The first is when you are just starting out. It just makes sense that it would be zero. You may have student loans but that is offset by some form of education that will allow you to make more money in the course of your lifetime. The key is that this is the best time to start building your net worth. It allows the principal of compounding value to work its magic on your assets for decades. That saves you a lot of work later in life. However, most of us are not that wise and we find ourselves in our 30s and 40s with little or no Net Worth. This means you have less time for compounding to work. So you have to work harder and especially manage your money smarter to prepare for the financial challenges you face going forward. The nice thing is that you have probably made some mistakes that have made you much wiser. You should be able to recover much faster than you would have in your undisciplined youth.

• If you have a positive net worth that means that you are building assets. Just as important is that you are controlling your debt. This is the key that has probably gotten you to this situation. The key to a positive Balance Sheet is that debt offsets the value of your assets when you look at your personal finances as a complete picture so your debt / equity ratio should be less than one and get smaller and smaller. Debt servicing saps cash flow on your budget that could have been used to build assets that can be used to produce income in your retirement years. Clear title ownership of assets such as your home reduce cash draw and this is incredibly important as you approach retirement.

The financial crisis we are in now is described as a Balance Sheet crisis. We are in this crisis because nobody was paying attention to their Balance Sheets, not even at the rising heights of our financial infrastructure. The symptoms were everywhere. While researching I found that the top sites on the internet for Balance Sheet are those who want to sell you something so that they can gain access to any assets on your balance sheet that might be left after this disaster. Before the disaster, the only thing that had any importance was whether a potential buyer of anything could afford to make the payments on whatever he was buying assuming he made 120% of his declared income. The most outrageous symptom was that people would take appreciating home equity and borrow against it to buy depreciating assets and consumer goods. They overbooked their budgets and now they have gutted their balance sheet.

The resulting loss of home values ​​is the disaster we have now where people have either a zero or minus Net Worth. The other aspect is that we are now wiser. For the good of our society and our financial infrastructure we had better be. Going forward we must pay attention to our Balance Sheets and recognize that is where the gold is. You must save and protect your gold. Net Worth is where financial power is and that is the Importance of a Balance Sheet.

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Mandatory Provident Fund

Ideally, retirement means a person retire from their regular career; Enter a new life span to review what they have contributed to their profession through their early and middle adulthood. When a person entering retirement, they must enjoy the rest of their life, the fruitful harvest gain from their previous efforts and pursuing a new goal with their spare leisure time.

The beautiful picture of retirement can only be achieved if you are being protected with a good retirement protection, such as provident funds or personal savings. Without these schemes, I am afraid the retirement will only be a start of a nightmare. In fact, before the implementation of the Mandatory Provident Fund scheme, only about one-third of the work of 3.4 million people have some form of retirement protection.

Contribution from the advancement of education level, numerous breakthrough in the medical treatment, modern technology to combat the natural disasters and so on, Hong Kong's population is living much larger than before, but also getting older in a fast tempo. Nowadays, already ten percent of our population is aged 65 and above. By 2016 the proportion will be 13 percent and one senior citizen in every 5 people by 2035.

Without some way is found of funding the welfare and health needs of the growing population of elderly, a massive burden will fall on the shoulders of the taxable working population. Their wages will be heavily taxed to meet the claims. Without sufficient financial resources, the scarce resources will jeopardize the well medical services and welfare we are enjoying now, something must be done to cope with the predicted situation.

The Pathway to Retirement Protection — Mandatory Provident Fund

The World Bank has outlined a framework of the protection for the elderly, so called 'three pillars of old age protection'. This recommended that old-age programs should protect the old and also promote economic growth. The three pillows recommended by the World Bank are
Mandatory, privately managed, fully funded contribution scheme.
Publicly managed, tax-funded social safety net for the old.

Voluntary personal savings and insurance.

The SAR government is operating a Comprehensive Social Security Assistance Scheme, which provides basic social security to the needy, and after much debt it was decided in 1995 that the Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF) Scheme should be introduced, there was a reasonable argument as to the Best system for Hong Kong. With the introduction of MPF, complemented by personal savings, Hong Kong will have in place all the three pillows for old age protection.

Mandatory Provident Fund Scheme Order requires all employees (irrespective of their status as a temporary staff or part time worker) and self-employed persons to join a MPF scheme under which contributions will be saved for retirement. The ideology is to ensure people are adequately provided for upon reaching retirement age.

Employer and employee each pay 5 percent of an employee's monthly salary into a privately run pension plan. The MPF law gives an employee a range of investment choices under an employer's MPF scheme. Generally speaking, without other circumstances, the member can only collect the lump sum of the MPF benefits when they attain the retirement age of 65.

Problematic MPF?

Mandatory Provident Fund scheme which begins in December 2000, this scheme represents a starting point for coercing individuals to plan for their retirement. Beside helping to provide for the retirement needs of millions of people, the MPF is likely to radically reshape savings habits and investment attributions and it will extend the pension umbrella to the remaining two million employed by about 250,000 small and medium sized companies.

Different retirement protection systems have their advantages and disadvantages. After careful consideration, it is generally accepted that MPF best suits Hong Kong 'needs, but as we know, no system is prefect, MPF is no exception, this controversial policy has drawn many criticisms.

Libertarians claim the system run contrary to the Hong Kong spirit, as individuals and firms are coerced into savings decisions that are better placed to make alone.

Other claim Many workers with high mobility are able to avoid taxation by constantly changing employment and a lack of information about them would make it difficult to capture them in the MPF network.

Many more violations and oppositions have also targeted the MPF, in the following paragraphs; I will divide it into different aspects and analyze these practices and oppositions, so that we can get more detailed picture about this far-reaching policy.

Protection for all?

MPF is adding a pillar for our retirement protection; If it is true, it will consolidate the foundation of an enjoyable retiring life and the retired people are no longer worried living under poverty. In fact, will it really protect all future retired people in Hong Kong? It seems to be the most challenging questions and controversial part of the MPF policy. Will the scheme really protect the elderly, unemployed, housewives and so on? I will divide the question into four parts — high income group, low income group, no income group and young, middle and old aged worker to look for the answer for the above questions.

High income people

Before we consider who will benefit the most from the scheme, we should know what you get out of the scheme depends on what you put in. As a result, low-income workers will enjoy less protection than the higher paid worker.

Many high-income people are working large companies and occupying the middle, high or senior position. Since they are specialized in their relevant profession and they possess some kind of expertise knowledge in their working field, their bargaining power in the labor market are relatively higher, so their companies and organization will provide them many welfare and special allowances in order to lure them Staying in the company. Nearly all of them will enjoy a pleasant retirement even without the implementation of the MPF, since many of them have significant amounts of personal saving, high value property or investment and existing pension fund.

Now the MPF has been implemented, both employers and employees will have to pay a minimum contribution of 5% of relevant income, this group of people seems to be much protected and secured from the policy.

Low-income people

As the points illustrated above, low income workers will enjoy less protection than the higher paid because what you get out of the MPF scheme depends on what you put in.

The greatest untruth of the MPF is that a gross 10 percent deduction from salaries, capped at a maximum income of $ 20,000 a month that can make a meaningful dent in funding old age. This mandatory contribution level of the scheme is a good basis to start with, but it is not enough. People will need to pay more to get a better life in retirement. A simple example will illustrate more about the concept, for example, a young man who starts to pay into an MPF ​​plan at 20 years old with an average income of HK $ 15000 per month. Assuming the investment grows with 5 percent inflation, after 45 years of contributions, he would receive just HK $ 771429, that would leave him just HK $ 4300 per month for the 15 years after retirement, if we assuming he die at age 80 (the average life Expectation in Hong Kong).

We should remember most low-income workers are approaching only around $ 10000 or below per month. After many years of contributions, they would receive just around $ 2000-3000 a month. Also due to their income would berely cover their monthly expenses, they are without personal savings, their retirement may not be funded in a pleasant way, the effectiveness of the MPF scheme may not create a beautiful picture for this group of people.

The MPF scheme not only can not provide an effective retirement protection for them, but also create some difficulties and hardships for them. Some unscrupulous employers are avoiding pay extra for the Mandatory Provident Fund scheme by slashing wages and making their staff become self-employed. Many of these problems came from the catering and construction industries.

Since Hong Kong are still recovering from the 1997 Asia financial turmoil, the most hard hit industries (transports, catering, restaurants, construction, manufacturing) are still struggling, most low income workers are working in these sectors (an estimated 500,000 people are working in The construction and catering industries, which account for about 17 percent of the total work in the SAR). Some employers were 'playing tricks' to avoid their financial responsibility because the MPF is an additional cost for these employers. They only cut staff salaries to save costs rather than taking risks to break the law.

Some restaurant owners treated part of their staff wages as special allowances instead of basic salaries in an attempt to lower the employers' contribution. Others effectively cut salaries by imposing an unpaid holiday arrangement on staff. Some construction firms had modified staff into self-employed contractors to avoid liability. The affected construction workers would have no longer enjoy the benefits of MPF or other staff welfare scheme.

Transport employees are also affected by the scheme. A survey conducted by the Container Transportation Employees General Union members found 86 percent had experienced some reduction in pay and benefits by employers using the MPF as the reason. The cutbacks include reducing pay and benefits such as bonuses, travel allowances and telephone payments, signing new contracts that waive past years of services without compensations. They were forced to register as a business so they have self employed status. Since it is very difficult to find a job in the current climate, so they have to accept the new arrangement reluctantly in order to survive.

All those unscrupulous employers are not only exploiting these low-income workers that are also under the effects of the SAR government to build a fund fund system for Hong Kong.

We can see clearly the long-term benefits are far from the low-income workers, but the immediate negative consequences that they should face now, so there is no doubt why the most opposite voice is coming from this sector.

Protection for Young, Middle and Old aged People

The benefits from MPF not only depend on the salary input, but also depends on the choice of funds. The choice of fund may be greatly influenced by the age of employee and what you can collect after retirement. For example, a young worker can afford to invest more in high risk, higher reward funds because if markets tank, they have a long time to recover. By contrast, an employee close to retirement can not afford to risk short-term volatility taking a chunk out of his capital. Young workers seem to be the most benefit from the MPF scheme, compare with the middle or near retiring aged people. The majority of low income earners in their 40s and 50s have no chance of achieving what pension planners call a minimum replacement rate sufficient to fund a pleasant retirement, for example, a man who works for the next 25 years on the median wage of $ 10000 a Month may get only $ 1700 a month upon retirement, based on commonly quoted return rate of two percent, less than social security assistance for a single person.

Finally, as workers can not take any money back before reaching 65, and there are investment risks involved. The private sector rather than the government will manage the funds. The MPF in no way safeguards every citizen's right to the security of basic provisions in life.

No income group

Many people have criticized the MPF scheme which starts in December 2000, neglects the elderly, unemployed and women particularly housewives, since the MPF requires 'employer' and 'employee' to contribute to the scheme, so the well being of the no income people will not Be guaranteed.

MPF scheme as a compromise package that does not serve the well-being of the most vulnerable. There are now 600,000 people over 65 and in 1996, one quarter of people over 60 were living below the poverty line, with a monthly income of under $ 2500.

Women will also remain stuck in a dependent role under the MPF scheme, less than half of the labor forces coerced by the scheme are women because many are either workers workers or housewives. When they get old, they can only expect to relish on their husband, if they have one or obtain comprehensive social security assistance.

At present, Hong Kong is operating a Comprehensive Social Security Assistance Scheme, which offers basic social security to the needy. With the introduction of MPF, complemented by personal savings and CSSA, Hong Kong will indeed have in place all the three pillars for old age protection. In fact, it is far from saying that the scheme provides an effective retirement protection for all and easily believes the problem of elderly poverty will be eradicated.
Burden for investors in Hong Kong?

Hong Kong acts as a financial center in the world and playing a significant role in the Asia. The implementation of MPF will certainly affect the investors, no matter the multi-national investors, big business entrepreneur, small and medium sized enterprises.

Investors of big business

Big companies in order to recruit the talents from the labor markets, many of them have been offering various welfares for their employees, these including a well-sound pension system. Before the implementation of the MPF systems, many big companies have start selecting their company's MPF provider. For example, Swire Pacific said the process of selecting the company's provider began two years old. As one of the Hong Kong's largest companies, Swire are operating companies, such as Cathay Pacific Airways, hotel, trading, marine and properly-development and employing 25000 employees, for this kind of big companies, it is important to have a provider with a Sound administration system to deliver pension services to all their employees, since employees are the largest assets for these big business operators.

Large companies appeared to be concerned about their employees' statements when choosing a provider, it can reflect large companies seem to support MPF scheme and it come along with their existing pension policy, it seems not to create financial burdens for this kind of companies compare with Small and medium sized companies.

Investors of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

Coming at a time when small and medium firms are struggling back into the black after the financial crisis, it is not surprising that the MPF is off to a shaky start. There is no doubt that the MPF presents an extra financial burden for companies that work on narrow profit margins when these kinds of companies were badly hit by the Asia financial turmoil. Small and medium sized businesses (SMEs) have protested vociferously over the MPF's introduction, insisting they can not afford it with the economy still recovering from recession.

Although MPF will extend the pension umbrella to the two million, employed by about 250,000 small and medium sized companies, the financial burden seems to be unbearable for the investors.

For small business investors, they are reluctance to join the scheme is not just about the financial burden. They also resented the time consumed by MPF decision-making and paper work because many of them were far too busy with the day-to-day business of running the firm to take on extra paper work.

How MPF scheme affects the Hong Kong 'economy?

MPF not only will have far reaching effects on the fund-management industry, service providers, but also the general economy. Since MPF is an investment programs, it will increase the pool of institutional funds invested in the SAR, broadening and deepening the financial markets, promoting their efficiency and theby economic growth, it will bring positive charges for financial market.

On the other hand, some people criticize the MPF scheme will eventually upset the flexibility of Hong Kong because workers can not take any money back before reaching 65 and there are investment risks involved. This compulsory saving scheme, unable an employee who leaves a company can get cash in a lump sum or use it to buy property or whatever and invest in other areas.

Conclusion

Although it is far from saying that MPF provides an effective retirement protection for all and older poverty will be eradicated, it really encourages people to save for their old age. No schemes are perfect, the MPF is no exception, but it is the scheme most suitable for Hong Kong 'needs. Since Hong Kong has a well-established and sound financial services sector. A privately managed retirement system under prudential regulation and oversight is the most effective and secure way offer retirement protection to the work. Also under a free competition environment, it tends to increase efficiency and reduce costs of operating the MPF scheme, which will benefit scheme members extremely.

Nowadays, a large part of the social welfare expenses are spending on the Comprehensive Social Security Assistance (CSSA), in the long run, MPF scheme may reduce the financial burden of CSSA, spare welfare expenses can be spent on other social welfare areas, every Citizens will benefit at large.

The scheme may be viewed with some skepticism at the moment, but after people have a chance to see the plan in action, attitudes towards long term saving and retirement should change. Then retirement could be something to look forward to with pleasure, rather than worry. But one thing should be bear in mind, our government should also take care of the most vulnerable people in our society as the paragraphs mentioned above, provide them with appropriate assistance, especially the low income people. Only with that, Hong Kong will be a better, fairer society for everyone to live in.

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The Relationship Between Insurance and Finance

Insurance and finance are closely interwoven fields of business, not least because they both involve money. They also often both involve speculation and risk, and often where one goes, the other will follow. Take property investment for example, it involves a large amount of capital out lay, swiftly followed by insurance to protect the capital investment. It would be ridiculous to spend such a vast sum of money on a venture and not protect it against possible damage. It therefore makes sense to store information on these two subjects together, as the relationship is so logical.

Insurance is a form of risk management used to protect the insured against the risk of a loss. It is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium. There are different kinds of insurance for just about every conceivable event. The most common insurance is probably life insurance, which provides a monetary benefit to a decedent’s family or other designated beneficiary.

It can cover funeral or burial costs and can be paid out to the beneficiary in either a lump sum or as an annuity. Property insurance is one of the more necessary insurances as property is extremely expensive and if it is lost or damaged for some reason (fire, earthquake, flood) it can be very difficult to replace without adequate reimbursement. Travel insurance used to be seen as an unnecessary expense and is still viewed as such by many. Its importance is, however, being increasingly recognised by the public at large. It is cover taken by those who travel abroad and covers certain unforeseen events such as medical expenses, loss of personal belongings, travel delays etc. There are numerous other types of insurance, too many to mention, all vital if you want to protect something of particular importance to you or another.

In the world of finance there are many sub-categories, also too numerous to mention but a few will be included here. Forex, or the foreign exchange market wherever one currency is traded for another. It includes trading between banks, speculators, institutions, corporations, governments, and other financial markets. The average daily trade in the global forex is over US$ 3 trillion.

Tax consulting usually involves CPAs and tax lawyers in addressing any tax issues that you may have. There may also be Professional Strategic Tax Planners and Enrolled Agents, depending on the company that you hire. They will help you reduce your tax debt, eliminate tax penalties, an innocent spouse claim, tax liens, bank levies, and preparing unfilled tax returns, as well as any other tax resolution problem that you might have.

Property investment is usually when an investor buys property with an eye to generate profit and not to occupy it. It is an asset that has been purchased and held for future appreciation, income or portfolio purposes. In some instances an investment property does not have to be held for profit, as some landlords in New York lease office buildings to non-profit organisations for tax purposes. Homeowners consider their homes to be investments but they aren’t classified as investment properties. Perhaps if you’re buying your second or third home, it can be considered an investment property, especially if you plan to rent it out to help pay off the home loan.

Business networking is a marketing method, which is as old as business itself. It’s been around since ever since people learned to hold a glass of whiskey and schmooze. In fact, its probably been around a lot longer, Cro-Magnon man probably gathered around the newly discovered fire and showed each other their collection of animal teeth and traded them. Creating networks of crocodile teeth owners and sabre toothed tiger owners, who tried a take over bid against the sabre toothed leopard owners. Business networking is designed to create business opportunities through social networks. It helps if the people involved are of the same frame of mind.

These days a very handy way of business networking is via the Internet on the various social media available. But it must be said that very little can beat the intimacy and trust created by face-to-face relationships. Also, where would our businessmen be without their whiskeys and weekly schmooze?

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Different Types of Life Insurance Policies Available in India

Life insurance is one of the fastest growing financial service sector in India. Currently, there are 24 life insurance companies in India offering various kinds of life insurance policies with many benefits and riders. The main purpose of taking life insurance is to provide financial protection for the dependents of a person in case of his death.

There are some life insurance policies which have inbuilt wealth creation or investment plans along with insurance. Also, these products are offered as specific tailor-made products for different life stages like, child plans, retirement plans, pension plans etc. A few products offer loan facility along with the life insurance plan. Also, all life insurance premiums offer tax benefits to the insured, as per the Indian Income Tax Act.

Here under are different types of life insurance policies that are being offered in India.

Term insurance policy:
Term insurance offers financial protection for the family of the insured in case of his sudden demise. It is the cheapest life insurance policy that offers high sum assured at low cost. This policy provides insurance cover for a period of time. In India, almost all life insurance companies offer term insurance with different product names. The term policy will be usually available for 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 years. The policyholder does not get life cover after the completion of the term policy. Further, in India premium paid on term insurance is eligible for tax exemption under section 80C of Income Tax Act in India.

Money-back policy:
Under this policy, certain portion or percentage of the sum assured is returned back to the insured, in case of survival of policy holder. In the event of death during the period of the policy, the nominee of the policy gets death benefits equal to the sum secured and accumulated cash benefits. The premiums of money-back policy are very high compared to term insurance policy.

The money-back policies are offered for a fixed period of time, usually up to 25 years and the policyholder pays a fixed premium periodically (monthly, quarterly, annually) during the policy period. The premiums paid on money-back insurance policies are eligible for tax exemption under section 80C of Income Tax Act in India.

Whole life insurance policy:
As the name suggests, the policy covers risk for an entire life of the policyholder. This policy continues as long as the policy holder is alive. The policy offers only death benefits to the beneficiary or nominee in case of the death of the insured. This policy does not offer any survival benefits. So, the whole life insurance policy is primarily taken to create wealth for the heirs of the policyholders, as this policy offers payment of the sum assured plus bonus in the event of the death of the policyholder. The premiums of whole life insurance are costlier than term plans.

The policyholder pays premium for whole life or till some age (say 80 years) or for some period of 35-40 years based on the terms and conditions of the policy. The premium paid on whole-life insurance policies is eligible for tax exemption under section 80C of Income Tax Act in India.

Endowment insurance policy:
It is a savings linked insurance policy that provides cover for a specified period of time. The policy holder receives sum assured along with bonus or profits at the end of the policy in case of its survival. This policy is best for those people who do not have a savings or investing habit on a regular basis. In case of the death of the policy holder before the maturity of the policy, the beneficiary of the policy receives only the sum assured amount.

The premiums of the endowment policies in India are costlier than term life and whole life insurance premiums. Also, the premiums paid on endowment insurance policies are eligible for tax exemption under section 80C of Indian Income Tax Act.

Unit linked insurance policy (ULIP):
It is a special kind of investment tool combined with life insurance and serves as investment-linked insurance policy. In this policy, some part of the premiums goes into life cover and some part of the premium goes into investment.

The policy consists of investment mix where some percentage of the premium can go into 100% equity funds or 100% debt funds or a mixture of both. Here, the policyholder has an option of choosing funds or he can select the strategy of investing. The policyholder can also have the choice of switching from one fund to other fund. The returns from ULIPS are based only on the performance of the funds. The main drawback of ULIPs is that, it contains high charges (responsibilities) for managing funds.

In India, ULIPs allow you to claim tax benefits against the premium payment by two ways – deduction and exemption. You can deduct up to Rs.1 lakh of your taxable income by investing in ULIPs under section 80C of Indian Income Tax Act. You can exempt from gross income under section 10 (10) D for any sum received from insurance.

Insurance policies have a great role to play in assuring tax savings. As per the policy in India, all regular-premium life insurance policies (except pension plans) in India issued after April 2012, should offer protection cover of at least 10 times the annual income to be eligible for tax benefits under section 80C and 10 ( 10) D.

Choose and get a best life insurance policy to protect your family's financial condition in your absence.

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Forehand Vs Backhand MIG Welding Techniques

Forehand and backhand welding are the most basic of all welding techniques. They are simple, have their purpose and provide a specific type of weld when used properly. In this article you will learn why these techniques are used and most importantly why.

Forehand Technique

Forehand is a technique where the welder pushes the puddle and keeps the arc slightly ahead of the puddle. Forehand welding is done with the MIG gun pointed in the direction of travel. For example, if the welder will be welding from right to left, then the MIG gun will point toward the left at all times. The angle that the MIG gun is pointed toward the direction travel can vary. The angle of the MIG gun can be anywhere between 5 degrees to as much as 35 degrees toward the direction of travel. When traveling forehand the welder must focus on keeping the arc slightly ahead of the puddle.

Backhand Technique

The backhand technique is the exact opposite of the forehand welding technique. In the case of back hand welding the welder keeps the MIG gun pointed toward the weld while traveling away from it. For example if the welder is welding from left to right then the MIG gun will be pointed toward the left. The angle of the MIG gun can vary between 5 degrees to 35 degrees toward the weld.

Understand the Reasons for these Welding Techniques

These MIG welding techniques do serve a very important purpose. What they do is control the weld shape and the penetration pattern.

Forehand welding is the most commonly used technique for MIG welding. What the forehand method does is produce a shallow but wide penetrating weld that is flat in appearance. This is the type of weld and penetration is used for most weld joints where overheating is not an issue.

Backhand welding is the least used welding technique when it comes to MIG. This technique produces the deep and narrow type of penetration that is best suited for thinner metals. The advantage of backhand welding is that the arc is focused onto the filler metal and that means extra material to prevent burn through. When welding thinner metals you always run the risk of burning a hole through the weld joint. With the backhand method the extra filler metal at the arc helps prevent this and at the same time can keep warp age to a minimum.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Short Term Insurance Plans

Short term health care insurance policies are becoming more popular by the day due to its flexibility as well as affordability. Many low-income households have no choices other than opt for these short term insurance plans especially when long term plans are not affordable. Although these temporary plans have their own set of limitations, these drawbacks are shadowed by several advantages that are offered by these flexible packages that make them extremely attractive, especially for those who can only afford low income health insurances.

What exactly are the disadvantages of short term health care coverage? Well, for one, it is extremely easy to obtain as application processes do not consume time, you could probably obtain approval within a day of applying. This makes the application process simple, so many flock to health insurance companies get these packages. Another primary advantage is the low premiums, this would be especially attractive for those who can not afford comprehensive health insurance plans. Temporary health care insurance plans also work perfectly for travelers who require insurance in the country of travel during vacations or excursions, as well as people who are between jobs or freshmen out of college. The flexibility of these plans allows you to choose how long you want to be covered, and lets you determine how much you want to pay for your premium (would reflect on the amount of coverage that you receive).

Neverheless, these plans do come with their drawbacks as well. With these health care insurance packages, renewals are not guaranteed, then once your policy expires, you would have to re-apply and hope to obtain approval once again. This could prove to be a little troublesome, as durations of the policy are typically between 30 and 360 days only. Short term health coverage also does not include optical, dental nor medical check ups, so you might incur extra expenditure if you need medical attention on these.

As a conclusion, short term health insurance plans work well for those who are in a financial transition period, or needs insurance during traveling. If the limits of these plans do not deter you, then you would be happy with what temporary health care insurance plans can offer for your benefit.

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Traveling Has Great Educational Value

The value of traveling as a part of education is great. Books give the students the theoretical knowledge. It is a second hand knowledge based on the experiences of others. Traveling gives students first had and practical knowledge. Such a knowledge is more valuable and permanent. Personal and practical experiences are never forgotten. They stand us in good stead throughout the life.

The value of tours, excursions, expeditions etc., during school and college days is of much practical importance. They strengthen learning and make education easy and entertaining. The lessons of history, geography, economics, science etc. can be best learnt by traveling to historical sites, places of natural interest, factories, great laboratories and national institutions. Lessons in ecology, environment and forest preservation become easier by visiting slums, industrially degraded places and forests. That is why such a great importance is attached to educational tours, expeditions and excursions. The problems of poverty, over-population and slums become clearer by visiting the living conditions of the villagers and slum-dwellers. Lessons in history become a mere book-learning without a visit to museums and historical places.

Education is an ever ongoing process. It does not stop wit leaving a school or a college. Life itself is the biggest school and experience the biggest teacher. Travel takes us to various places and people. It provides us with many new and rich experiences. We come into contact with new people, things and places. The practical knowledge obtained through traveling is matchless. Traveling is essential to understand people, places and things.

Travel widens our horizon of knowledge. It broadens the mind and enlarges the heart. It is ever enjoyable and entertaining. Modern means of traveling are very fast, easy, economical and convinent. Their speed, safety and reliability is beyond doubt. Students can easily to on tours and expeditions and obtain rich, practical and much valuable education. The more travel there is, the richer and wider is your training and education. Travel in the young age is a part of education. Travel teaches the students about the oneness in the variety and diversity of life.

Travel promotes feelings of tolerance and brotherhood. It grows and promotes feelings of nationalism. Travel is a good means to know one’s country, people, culture and history. It increases business and commercial activities. It brings people closer. Promotion of cultural, social and national activities are part of liberal education. It is through traveling that warm, true and genuine friendship and brotherhood can be formed. Travel changes our attitudes favourably. It makes us enlightened intellectually.

A student who never goes out of his city or town has a narrow vision. His outlook is limited and bookish. He fails to can never realise the real greatness, strength and glorious culture of the country. By traveling he can easily learn and imbibe the integrity and unity of India. It is rightly said that home-keeping youth has ever homely wits. Learning is not complete without traveling.

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